Home » What is the Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R)?

What is the Job Demands-Resources Model (JD-R)?

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As business leaders look at a rapidly changing job, more competitive labor market, they are looking at models like the Job Demands-Resources Model. Because it can help them better balance the demands of a role and the resources provided to an employee to help them succeed in it.

You might wonder what the Job Demands-Resources Model is and how it can help your business.

We’ll examine the Job-Demands-Resources Model and explain how it can help you create happier, more engaged employees, which can help improve productivity and customer service.

Related: The Overlooked Secret To Retention – How To Build Familial Teams

About the Jobs Demand Resources Model

The Job Demands-Resources Model was introduced in 2006 by researchers Evangelina Demerouti and Arnold Bakker as an alternative to existing models for employee well-being.

Managers and supervisors use the JD-R to evaluate and manage the involvement of their employees.

The model suggests that it is the imbalance between the requirements of the job and the resources that are available to the employee that increases stress in employees.

Components of the Job Demands-Resource Model

The JD-R model breaks working conditions into two components: job demands and job resources.

Job Demands

The job demands in the JD-R model are the physical and emotional aspects of the job that act as stressors on employees. 

These stressors include issues like:

  • Time Pressure
  • Heavy Workloads
  • Role Ambiguity
  • Poor Work Relationships
  • Stressful Working Environment
  • Emotional Labor

Job Resources

Job resources are the physical, social, or organizational factors that help employees reach their goals and reduce stress. 

Job resources include:

  • Strong Work Relationships
  • Autonomy
  • Learning and Development
  • Coaching and Mentoring
  • Opportunities for Advancement

The JD-R model states that when job demands are high and job resources are low, stress and burnout are expected outcomes for employees. Conversely, when job resources are high, they can help offset the effects of high job demands and also help raise employee motivation 

and engagement.

Do you want to see how B STATE helps business teams create lasting change? Click here to Book a Call!

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Applying the JD-R Model to Find Work Balance

The first step in applying the JD-R Model to find work balance for your team is to identify the job demands that could be stressors for your employees.

Identify Job Demands

Talk to your managers and employees to get candid, honest feedback on the demands of their jobs.

Typical stressors might include:

  • High Work Volume
  • Tight or Unattainable Deadlines
  • Too Many Bureaucratic Procedures and Rules
  • Poor Working Relationships
  • Projects That Are Too Complex
  • Projects That Are Too Boring
  • Emotionally Draining Roles or Tasks
  • Uncomfortable Work Environment
  • Limited Opportunities for Personal Development or Advancement
  • Unclear Roles
  • Ambiguous Goals
  • Little Opportunity for Work Autonomy

Address the Job Demands

Odds are you will have a long list of demands that can act as stressors on your team. So the next step is deciding which ones you can change and which you can’t. 

Here are some common ways to address job demands:

  • Make Sure Your Team Understands the Purpose of Their Work
  • Have Clear Team Goals
  • Provide a Comfortable Working Environment
  • Remove Redundancies and Bottlenecks in Workflows
  • Assign the Right People to the Right Task
  • Show Empathy For and Support Your Team Members
  • Listen and Show Empathy
  • Be Sensitive to Their Emotional Labor
  • Focus on Employee Wellness

Identify Job Resources

Now that you understand the job demands, the next step is to identify the job resources that can help ease some of the job demands on your team.

Job resources can include:

  • More Autonomy
  • Personal and Professional Development Opportunities
  • Coaching and Mentoring
  • A Pleasant Work Environment
  • Positive Work Relationships
  • Clear Goals
  • Better Organizations Benefits, Rules, and Processes That Support Team Members
  • More One-On-One Meetings

Promote Your Job Resources

When there’s an imbalance between job demands and resources, be proactive in addressing them

Here are some common ways to proactively promote your job resources:

  • Don’t Overlook Good Working Relationships
  • Make Sure Job Descriptions are Accurate and Up to Date
  • Cross-Train Your Team to Expand Professional Opportunities
  • Provide Consistent Constructive Feedback to Your Team
  • Encourage Learning and Development
  • Install A Mentor Program
  • Create a Team Charter to Define Everyone’s Roles

Related: 20 Employee Engagement Ideas Proven to Work

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Review the Outcome of the JD-R Balance

The best way to determine how effective you’ve been in establishing a balance between the job demands and job resources for your employees is by looking at the outcomes.

You’ll see negative outcomes if the balance is negative and the work demands more energy than it yields.

Negative Outcomes

  • Higher Absence Rate
  • Lack of Focus on the Job
  • Negative Attitude
  • More Mistakes
  • Less Productive

However, when the balance is positive, and the job produces more energy than it costs, you’ll see that in a more engaged team with better attitudes and behaviors.

Positive Outcomes

  • Happier, More Productive Employees
  • Fewer Absences
  • Positive Attitudes and Workplace
  • Fewer Mistakes

Managing Employee Involvement

Keeping your team motivated and involved in their work can often be challenging for managers and leaders. However, the more involved your employees are, the more they feel like they are part of a team, which will help increase their satisfaction. 

Tips for encouraging employee involvement include:

  • Promote and Celebrate Achieving Team Goals
  • Recognize and Acknowledge Employees in Front of Others
  • Create Off-Site Team Activities
  • Increase Managements Visibility to Employees
  • Have Managers Mentor Employees
  • Create a Team Environment For All Employees

Would you like to learn more about growing your business in the face of change? Click here to learn more about B STATE’s approach!

The Job Demands-Resources Model Can Help Improve the Productivity of Your Company

Since its introduction in 2006, the Job Demands-Resources Model has changed how management looks at their employees’ well-being.

The JD-R Model is made up of two principal components, job demands and job resources. Job demands are the stressors put on your employees by their position; job resources are what your company provides to help offset those stressors.

Using the JD-R Model and other models, a consulting firm like B STATE can help make long-term, profitable changes to your business team. Changes that will help increase revenue and customer satisfaction. 

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